Etymological Stratigraphy of the Lexemes lacuna / лакуна in English and Ukrainian
The article deals with etymological versions of lacuna in English and its Ukrainian лакуна counterpart. It has become terminologically important in the process of functioning and has become the basic term for the new science of lacunology. It is revealed that the lexeme of lacuna / лакуна was borrowed into English and Ukrainian from Latin, but at the same time it should be considered as a result of the semantic development of IE. *laku, in particular, of its primary definitions as “reservoir”, “dried lake”, “hole”, “void” and others Etymological nests of derivatives related to the words lacuna / лакуна have been constructed to demonstrate their genetic relationship for the common IE. root *laku / *laqü-, with the subsequent transition to the Proto-German *lögr and the Proto-Slavic – *loky. It is established that by semantic shift of the semantic chain “water”, “lake”, “pit”, “hole” in the original semantic structure of these words an archisema ‘absence’ was formed through a dichotomy повний [з водою] :: порожний [без води]. The component analysis of differential and integral family connections of the archiseme of ‘absence’ in modern naive pictures of the world is made. Based on them their further terminologisation in scientific pictures of the world have been recorded.
It is proved that in the scientific pictures of the world these semes have lost their original topographic value (reservoirs and their devastated state) and have been transformed into seven ‘pass’, ‘missing element’, ‘missing form’, ‘gap’. The terms “lake”, “pit”, “swamp” and “sea” are no longer associated with the word lacuna / лакуна. Developing its original meanings and acquiring new differential families associated with the archiseme of ‘absence’ and new synonyms, the notion of lacuna / лакуна has become a term in philosophy, mathematics, medicine and linguistics.
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