Intralingual Prototypical Features of Causal Dominants in Related Languages

  • N. Ye. Lemish National Pedagogical Dragomanov University
Keywords: intralingual, prototype, prototypical feature, causal dominant, causal sememe, tertium comparationis, semantic role

Abstract

The paper deals with defining the intralingual prototypical features of causal dominants in English, Dutch, Spanish, Ukrainian, and Russian, being the languages of our research. The objective is achieved through solving such tasks as specifying the notion of “a prototype” and “a prototypical feature”, identifying causal sememes for all the causal dominants in related languages under study, and assigning semantic roles to all the elements of causal sememes identified. The employment of the following linguistic methods made it possible to fulfil all the tasks, namely: a contrastive method to select a causal sememe as tertium comparationis with further identification and contrasting of prototypical features on its basis; a structural method with componentional analysis of each causal dominant based on dictionary definitions; a cognitive method to model chains of semantic roles for each causal dominant. The combination of methods enabled modelling of three major chains, such as: [Ag +/ Eff + CAUSE + Pat +/ Rec +/ Instr]; [Ag +/ Eff + BE1 + Pat +/ Rec +/ Instr]; [Ag +/ Eff + BE2 + Pat +/ Rec +/ Instr].
The analysis of 1115 causal sememes identified based on the data from 24 dictionaries of 5 languages revealed the prototypical features for 10 causal dominants in English, Dutch, Spanish, Ukrainian, and Russian. As a result prototypical features for the English CC include Ag (5), Eff (33), Pat (2), Rec (34); for the Dutch CC – Ag (8), Eff (33), Pat (9), Rec (29); for the Spanish CC – Ag (0), Eff (41), Pat (4), Rec (37); for the Ukrainian CC – Ag (7), Eff (36), Pat (8), Rec (35); for the Russian one – Ag (7), Eff (42), Pat (8), Rec (42).
The results obtained for intralingual prototypes in English, Dutch, Spanish, Ukrainian, and Russian can serve as the basis for further identification of intralingual prototypes in the other languages, as well as defining crosslingual prototypes of the causal dominants in related languages, showing the universal and specific in mapping the phenomena of causal reality by different ethnic groups.

References

Daniel, M. A., Lander, Yu. A. (2013). Neravnopravie roley v otnositelnyih konstruktsiyah: materialyi po chastotnosti relyativizatsii v archinskom i udinskom yazyikah [Inequality of roles in relative constructions: materials on the frequency of relativization in the Archi and Udin languages]. Semantika yazyikovyih edinits raznyih urovney. Mahachkala. 15. 59–78.

Davyidov, I. I. (1853). Opyit obschesravnitelnoy grammatiki russkogo yazyika, izdannyiy 2-m otdeleniem imp. akademii nauk [The experience of the general grammar of the Russian language, published by the 2nd department of the Empress. Academy of Sciences]. 2-e izd. XLIV. 497.

Dowty, D. (1991). Thematic Proto-Roles and Argument Selection. Language. 67. 3. 547–619.

Dowty, D. (1979). Word Meaning and Montague Grammar: The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague’s Ptq. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. 415.

Dzheyms, K. (1989). Kontrastivnyiy analiz: per. s angl. N. A. Laufer [Contrastive analysis: transl. from English by N. A. Laufer]. Novoe v zarubezhnoy lingvistike. Vyip. XXV. Kontrastivnaya lingvistika. M.: Progress. 205–306.

Furs, L. A. (2004). Sintaksicheski reprezentiruemyie kontseptyi [Syntactically representable concepts]: dis. ... doktora filol. nauk. Tambov. 370.

Gak, V. G. (1989). O kontrastivnoy lingvistike [On Contrastive Linguistics] (vstup. st.). Novoe v zarubezhnoy lingvistike. Vyip. XXV. Kontrastivnaya lingvistika. M.: Progress. 5–17.

Grimshaw, J. (1990). Argument Structure. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 202.

Hale, K. L., Keyser, S. J. (1993). On Argument Structure and the Lexical Expression of Syntactic Relations. The View from Building 20: Essays in honor of Sylvain Bromberger. Cambridge: MIT Press. 53–109.

Jackendoff, R. (1990). Semantic Structures. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 336.

Jackendoff, R. (1987). The status of thematic relations in linguistic theory. Linguistic Inquiry. 18. 369–411.

Kasper, S. (2008). A comparison of “thematic role” theories. Marburg. 181.

Kibrik, A. E. (2004). Opyit frontalnogo korpusnogo issledovaniya konstruktsiy s vnutrennim i vneshnim posessorom [The experience of a frontal case study of structures with an internal and external possessor]. Dokladyi mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii Dialog. 265–275.

Kocherhan, M. P. (2006). Osnovy zistavnoho movoznavstva [Fundamentals of comparative linguistics]. K.: VTs “Akademiia”. 424.

Koduhov, V. I. (2013). Obschee yazyikoznanie [General linguistics]. 6-e izd. M.: Knizhnyiy dom “LIBROKOM”. 304.

Komarov, A. P. (1970). O lingvisticheskom statuse kauzalnoy svyazi [On the linguistic status of causal connection]. Alma-Ata. 20.

Ksheshovskiy, T. P. (1989). Ekvivalentnost, kongruentnost i glubinnaya struktura: per. s angl. M. V. Levashovoy [Equivalence, congruence and depth structure: transl. from English by M. V. Levashova]. Novoe v zarubezhnoy lingvistike. Vyip. XXV. Kontrastivnaya lingvistika. M.: Progress. 327–340.

Lakoff, G., Johnson, M. (1980 / 1981). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 242.

Lemish, N. (2014). A Structural and Semantic Typology of the Causal Complex in English. Austrian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Section 11. Philology and Linguistics. Vienna. 7–8. 221–225.

Lemish, N. (2015). Structural schemes to represent causal complex dominants in Dutch. European Research: Scientific Journal. 3(4). 72–75.

Lemish, N. Ye. (2014). Syntaksychnyi kontsept yak tertium comparationis pry vstanovlenni typolohii struktur kauzalnoho kompleksu (na materiali niderlandskoi ta ukrainskoi mov) [Syntactic concept as tertium comparationis in determining the typology of structures of the causal complex (based on the Dutch and Ukrainian language)]. Visnyk Kyivskoho natsionalnoho linhvistychnoho universytetu. Ser. Filolohiia. K.: Vyd. tsentr KNLU. 17. 1. 107–114.

Lemish, N. Ye. (2012). Zistavnyi analiz skladovykh kauzalnoho kompleksu v riznostrukturnykh movakh [Comparative analysis of the components of the causal complex in different languages]. Visnyk Mariupolskoho derzhavnoho universytetu. Ser. Filolohiia. Mariupol: MDU. 6. 108–114.

Levytskyi, V. V. (2008). Osnovy hermanistyky [Fundamentals of German Studies]. Vinnytsia: Nova knyha. 528.

Otkupschikov, Yu. V. (2005). Iz istorii indoevropeyskogo slovoobrazovaniya [From the history of the Indo-European word-formation]. 2-e izd., ispr. i dop. SPb.: Filologicheskiy fakultet SPbGU; M.: Akademiya. 320.

Pizani, V. (1956). Etimologiya. Istoriya – problemyi – metod: per. s ital. D. E. Rozentalya [Etymology. History – Problems – Method: transl. from Italian by D. E. Rozental]. M.: Izd-vo inostrannoy literaturyi. 188.

Polev, D. M. (2009). Etalon, prototip i stereotip kak mehanizmyi vospriyatiya cheloveka chelovekom [Etalone, prototype and stereotype as mechanisms of perception of a person by a person]. Vestnik YuUrGU. Seriya Psihologiya. 5. 18. 19–25.

Popova, Z. D. (2008). Sintaksicheskiy kontsept i mezhkulturnaya kommunikatsiya [Syntactic concept and intercultural communication]. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya Lingvistika i mezhkulturnaya kommunikatsiya. Voronezh. 2. 27–31.

Reinhart, T. (2002). The Theta System: an Overview. Theoretical Linguistics. 28. 229–290.

Ritter, E., Rosen, S. (2000). Event Structure and Ergativity. Events as Grammatical Objects. The Converging Perspectives of Lexical Semantics and Syntax. eds C. Tenny, J. Pustejovsky. California: CSLI Publications. 187–238.

Rosch, E. (1978). Principles of categorization. Cognition and categorization. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoсiates. 27–48.

Selivanova, O. O. (2010). Linhvistychna entsyklopediia [Linguistic Encyclopedia]. Poltava: Dovkillia-K. 844.

Shternemann, R. (1989). Vvedenie v kontrastivnuyu lingvistiku: per. s nem. E.R. Skvayre [Introduction to Contrastive Linguistics: transl. from German by E. R. Skvayre]. Novoe v zarubezhnoy lingvistike. Vyip. XXV. Kontrastivnaya lingvistika. M.: Progress. 144–178.

Shubina, T. P. (1986). Semantika obuslovlennosti v slozhnopodchinYonnom predlozhenii (na materiale altayskogo yazyika) [Semantics of Conditionality in a Complex Subordinate Sentence (based on the Altaic language)]. Sintaksicheskaya i leksicheskaya semantika (na materiale yazyikov raznyih sistem). Novosibirsk: Nauka. 66–79.

Slukhai, N. V. (2011). “Pertseptyvnyi prototyp” v paradyhmi kohnityvnoi semantyky [“Perceptual prototype” in the paradigm of cognitive semantics]. Movni i kontseptualni kartyny svitu. 36. 304–309.

Toporov, V. N. (1990). Sravnitelno-istoricheskoe yazyikoznanie [Comparative-historical linguistics]. Lingvisticheskiy entsiklopedicheskiy slovar, gl. red. V. N. Yartseva. M.: Sov. entsiklopediya. 486–490.

Trubachev, O. N. (1976). Etimologicheskie issledovaniya i leksicheskaya semantika [Etymological studies and lexical semantics]. Printsipyi i metodyi semanticheskih issledovaniy. M. 147–179.

Van Valin, R. D. Jr. (1993). Role and Reference Grammar. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. 37. 12. (University of North Dakota Session).

Van Valin, R. D. Jr. (2001). Semantic Macroroles in Role and Reference Grammar. University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. 1–15.

Volohina, G. A., Popova, Z. D. (1999). Sintaksicheskie kontseptyi russkogo prostogo predlozheniya [Syntactic concepts of the Russian simple sentence]. Voronezh. 196.

Wierzbicka, A. (1996). Semantic primes and universals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 500.

Yung, K. G. (1991). Arhetip i simvol [Archetype and symbol]. M.: Renessans. 304.



Lexicographic Sources

BTSRYa – Bolshoy tolkovyiy slovar russkogo yazyika [Great Dictionary of the Russian language] (1998). gl. red. S. A. Kuznetsov. 1-e izd. SPb.: Norint. 1535.

CCRLYa – Slovar sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo yazyika: v 17 t. [Dictionary of the modern Russian literary language: in 17 vol.] (1948–1965). red. V. I. Chernyishyova. M.; L.: Izd-vo AN SSSR.

CED – Collins English Dictionary (2011). 6th ed. Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers. 949.

DE – Diccionario Enciclopédico [Encyclopedic Dictionary] (2009). Larousse Editorial, S.L. 1. http://es.thefreedictionary.com/chabola.

DEL – El Diccionario de la lengua española [Dictionary of the Spanish language]. (2001). Espasa–Calpe. Retrieved from http://www.rae.es/publicaciones/obras-academicas/diccionarios-de-la-real-academia-espanola.

DMLE – Diccionario Manual de la Lengua Española [Manual Dictionary of the Spanish Language] (2007). Larousse Editorial, S.L. http://es.thefreedictionary.com/chabola.

DSA – El Diccionario de Sinónimos y Antónimos [Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms]. Retrieved from http://lenguaje.com/cgi-bin/Thesauro.exe?edition_field= causa&B1 =Buscar.

Efremova, T. F. (2006). Sovremennyiy tolkovyiy slovar russkogo yazyika: v 3 t. [Modern explanatory dictionary of the Russian language: in 3 vol.]. M.: AST, Astrel, Harvest. http://www.slovotolk.ru/efr44532.html.

ESUM – Etymolohichnyi slovnyk ukrainskoi movy: u 7 t. [Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language: in 7 vol.] (1982–2012). uklad. O. S. Melnychuk ta in. K.: Naukova dumka. 1: A–H. 634; 2: D–Koptsi. 573; 3: Kora–M. 553; 4: N–P. 657; 5: R–T. 705; 6: U–Ia. 569.

EWN – Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands: in 4 v. [Etymological dictionary of Dutch: in 4 v.] (2003–2009). onder hoofdredactie van dr. Marlies Philippa, dr. Frans Debrabandere, prof. dr. Arend Quak, dr. Tanneke Schoonheim en dr. Nicoline van der Sijs. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. I: A–E. 725; II: F–Ka. 659; III: Ke–R. 695; ІV: S–Z. 687.

Hornby, A. S. (2010). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. 7th ed. Oxford University Press. 1716.

HSUM – Slovar ukrainskoi movy: v 4 t. [Dictionary of the Ukrainian language: in 4 vol.] (1997). upor. z dod. vlasnoho materialu B. Hrinchenko. K.: Naukova dumka. 1: A–Zh. 494.; 2: Z–N. 588; 3: O–P. 516; 4: R–Ia. 616.

LDCE – Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2012). 5th ed. Pearson Education Ltd. 2082.

MNW – Midden-Nederlands Woordenboek. Retrieved from http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middelnederlandsch_Woordenboek.

Moliner, M. (1992). Diccionario de uso del español [Dictionary of spanish use]. Madrid: Gredos Editorial. 1. A–G. 1446.

NWDTEL – New Webster’s Dictionary and Thesaurus of the English Language (1993). ed. Doris L. Lechner. Danbury, CT: Lexicon Publications, Inc. XXXI. 1149.

Ozhegov, S. I. (1990). Slovar russkogo yazyika [Dictionary of the Russian language]. 22-e izd., ster. M.: Rus. yaz. 601.

Poliuha, L. M. (2007). Slovnyk synonimiv ukrainskoi movy [Dictionary of Ukrainian language synonyms]. K.: Dovira. 477.

SOED – The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (1956). prep. by William Little, H. W. Fowler, J. Coulson; rev. & ed. by C. T. Onions. 3rd ed., rev. with addenda. Oxford at the Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press. 2515.

SUM – Slovnyk ukrainskoi movy: v 11 t. [Dictionary of the Ukrainian language] (1970–1981). red. kol.: I. K. Bilodid (hol. red.) ta in. K.: Naukova dumka. 1: A–V. 801; 2: H–Zh. 550; 3: Z. 744; 4: I–M. 840; 5: N–O. 840; 6: P–POITY. 83; 7: POIKhATY–PRYROBLIaTY. 723; 8: PRYRODA–RIaKhTLYVYI. 929; 9: S. 918; 10: T–F. 659; 11: Kh–. 700.

TSRYa – Tolkovyiy slovar russkogo yazyika: v 4 t. [Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language: in 4 vol.] (1935–1940). red. D. N. Ushakova. M.: Sov. entsikl.: OGIZ. URL: http://feb-web.ru/feb/ushakov/ush-abc/0ush.htm.

VD – Van, D. (1976). Groot woordenboek der Nederlandse Taal: en 2 Dl. [Comprehensive dictionary of the Dutch language: in 2 vol.]. red. C. Kruyskamp. 10-e dr. 's-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. I: A–N. 1575; II: O–Z. 1655 p.

VTSSUM – Velykyi tlumachnyi slovnyk suchasnoi ukrainskoi movy [Comprehensive explanatory dictionary of the modern Ukrainian language] (2001). uklad. i hol. red. V. T. Busel. K.: Irpin: Perun. 1440.

WFT – Woordenboek der Friese Taal [Dictionary of the Frisian language]. http://gtb.inl.nl/.

WNT – Woordenboek der Nederlandse Taal [Dictionary of Dutch Language]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woordenboek_der_Nederlandsche_Taal.
Published
2018-08-21
How to Cite
Lemish, N. (2018, August 21). Intralingual Prototypical Features of Causal Dominants in Related Languages. Scientific Journal of National Pedagogical Dragomanov University. Series 9. Current Trends in Language Development, (17), 112-134. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31392/NPU-nc.series9.2018.17.09