Influence of Turkisms on English, German and Lithuanian Vocabulary

  • A.R. Dochu
Keywords: language contacts, borrowing, Turkisms, semantic changes, exotic words, Turkic penetrations


The article deals with the impact of Turkic borrowed words on English, German and Lithuanian vocabulary. Works devoted to Turkisms in Indo-European, particularly in Germanic and Baltic languages, are analysed. The replacement of Turkic borrowed words as a result of the interaction of the proper and the loan words, narrowing or widening of meanings, amelioration or pejoration of meanings, the appearance of secondary meanings and other semantic changes are established. Unrelatedness of Turkic and Indo-European languages influenced the further adaptation of Turkisms in recipient languages. Most of the Turkisms in English, German and Lithuanian relate to exotic words, but there are also Turkic penetrations. It is established that the Turkisms in Lithuanian were integrated into the system of the recipient language the most and it is explained by historical reasons, namely direct contacts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Crimean Khanate. It is found out that the intensity of influence of one language to another is determined not only by relatedness or unrelatedness of languages, but also by direct or indirect character of contacts. The future works may be devoted to the analysis of loan words on material of Turkic or other Indo-European languages, and also related or unrelated languages.


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How to Cite
Dochu, A. (2018, May 14). Influence of Turkisms on English, German and Lithuanian Vocabulary. Scientific Journal of National Pedagogical Dragomanov University. Series 9. Current Trends in Language Development, (16), 69-75. Retrieved from